In 2017, China announced an ambitious programme for its domestic development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, with the aim of becoming the world’s ‘major AI innovation centre’ by 2030. China plans to expand AI in many spheres of production, governance and defence by that deadline. Even today, the country ranks second globally in AI, although it still has to overcome major challenges, in particular in terms of talent and the production of very sophisticated semiconductors. China hopes to acquire ‘leapfrog’ technology, including in military AI. Faced with China’s technological challenge, the United States and the European Union are tracking AI developments in China more closely.