2 February 2022
With Ukraine coming under increasing pressure from Russia, the EU is keen to support Kyiv and forge closer links. Find out how.
Since withdrawing from the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine has been keen to pursue its own path, including forging closer links with the rest of Europe.
Ukraine’s relations with Russia have been tense due to the latter’s determination to keep the country within its sphere of influence. In 2014, Russia annexed Crimea in violation of international law, a move strongly condemned by the EU. It has also been waging a hybrid war against Ukraine, including economic pressure and disinformation attacks.
In September 2014, the European Parliament gave its consent to the EU-Ukraine Association agreement, which includes a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement. The deal established political association and economic integration between the EU and Ukraine and provided for mutual free market access.
The agreement established ground rules for cooperation in areas including energy, transport, and education. It also required Ukraine to implement reforms and respect democratic principles, human rights and the rule of law.
The free trade agreement substantially integrated EU and Ukraine markets by dismantling import duties and banning other trade restrictions, albeit with specific limitations and transitional periods in sensitive areas, such as trade in agricultural products.
The EU is Ukraine’s main trading partner, accounting for more than 40% of the country’s international trade.
In April 2017, the European Parliament supported an agreement to exempt Ukrainian citizens from EU short-stay visa requirements.
Ukrainians who hold a biometric passport can enter the EU without a visa for 90 days in any 180-day period, for tourism, to visit relatives or friends, or for business purposes, but not to work. The exemption applies to all EU countries, except Ireland.
There are various EU initiatives to support Ukraine’s economy, aid its green transition and help the country to reform.
Since 2014, more than €17 billion in grants and loans have been mobilised by the EU and financial institutions to support reforms in Ukraine, while applying conditionality dependent on their progress.
Since 2015, more than 11,500 Ukrainian students have participated in the EU’s poplar Erasmus+ programme.
The EU invests in projects to stimulate Ukraine’s economy, including direct support to 100,000 small and medium-sized enterprises, assistance to more than 10,000 firms in rural areas and funds to modernise public IT infrastructure.
Since the start of the Covid pandemic, the EU has mobilised more than €190 million for Ukraine to support immediate needs and socio-economic recovery as well as €1.2 billion in macro-financial assistance. The EU has supplied more than 36 million items of personal protective equipment, as well as ambulances, critical medical equipment and training for health care staff. In cooperation with civil society, the EU provides food and medicines to vulnerable families.
In 2018 Parliament awarded its Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought to Oleg Sentsov. The Ukrainian film director and human rights activist was imprisoned for protesting Russia’s annexation of his native Crimea on Independence Square in Kyiv, but released from jail on 7 September 2019 as part of a prisoner exchange deal between Russia and Ukraine.
In recent months, Russia has been building up its military presence along Ukraine’s borders. In a resolution adopted in December 2021, MEPs called on Russia to withdraw its troops threatening Ukraine and said any aggression by Moscow must come at a high economic and political price. Parliament had already expressed grave concern about the large Russian military build-up at the border with Ukraine and in illegally occupied Crimea in a resolution adopted in April 2021,
Members of Parliament’s foreign affairs committee and security and defence subcommittee went on a fact-finding mission to Ukraine from 30 January to 1 February 2022.
- Is Russia planning a new conflict in Ukraine? (December 2021)
- EU-Ukraine association agreement (July 2020)
- Ukraine: navigating multiple challenges (October 2019)
How the EU is supporting Ukraine
- EU-Russia relations under strain: what are the causes?
- Russia must immediately withdraw its forces threatening Ukraine
- Russia: MEPs deplore military build-up, attack in Czechia and jailing of Navalny
- Sakharov Prize ceremony: “Oleg Sentsov is a fighter by nature”
- Timeline: Parliament’s continued support for Ukraine
- Europe’s strategy towards Russia: how Parliament sees the way forward
- Kalniete: “Russia can no longer be considered the EU’s strategic partner”
- MEPs want deeper EU ties with Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova
- Pat Cox: “There is still enormous appetite for deeper transformation in Ukraine”
- Ukraine: timeline of events
- European Parliament approves €1.8 billion EU loan to Ukraine
- EU-Russia relations: a key strategic challenge
- Gabrielius Landsbergis: “Sanctions against Russia are already bearing fruit”
- MEPs urge Ukraine leaders to swiftly form government and launch reforms
- European Parliament ratifies EU-Ukraine Association Agreement
- Karas on Ukraine: If talks fail, risk of military escalation will increase
- Schulz in Kiev: ”What happens in Ukraine concerns all Europeans”
- MEPs welcome signs of hope in Ukraine and urge the EU to stand up to Russia
- Historic vote: EU–Ukraine agreement approved in Strasbourg and Kiev
- MEPs cut customs duties on imports from Ukraine
- Ukraine: “If the EU’s reaction is weak, Putin will make another step”
- MEPs urge support for democracy in Ukraine
- Debate: MEPs call on EU to support Ukrainians demonstrating for European future
- European Parliament calls on Russia to withdraw military forces from Ukraine
- Ukraine: the way out of the crisis
- Kowal: “In 10-15 years it will be natural to talk about Ukraine’s accession”